Call us : +91 - 9246522330

Our Services

Home » Our Services »Procedures 1 + » Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

Definition:

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, or PCNL, is a procedure for removing medium-sized or larger renal calculi (kidney stones) from the patient's urinary tract by means of an nephroscope passed into the kidney through a track created in the patient's back. PCNL was first performed in Sweden in 1973 as a less invasive alternative to open surgery on the kidneys. The term "percutaneous" means that the procedure is done through the skin. Nephrolithotomy is a term formed from two Greek words that mean "kidney" and “removing stones by cutting.''

Purpose:

The purpose of PCNL is the removal of renal calculi in order to relieve pain, bleeding into or obstruction of the urinary tract, and/or urinary tract infections resulting from blockages. Kidney stones range in size from microscopic groups of crystals to objects as large as golf balls. Most calculi, however, pass through the urinary tract without causing problems.

Standard PCNL:

A standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy is performed under general anesthesia and usually takes about three to four hours to complete. After the patient has been anesthetized, the surgeon makes a small incision, about 0.5 in (1.3 cm) in length in the patient's back on the side overlying the affected kidney. The surgeon then creates a track from the skin surface into the kidney and enlarges the track using a series of Teflon dilators or bougies. A sheath is passed over the last dilator to hold the track open. After the track has been enlarged, the surgeon inserts a nephroscope, which is an instrument with a fiberoptic light source and two additional channels for viewing the inside of the kidney and irrigating (washing out) the area. The surgeon may use a device with a basket on the end to grasp and remove smaller kidney stones directly. Larger stones are broken up with an ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probe, or a holmium laser lithotriptor. The holmium laser has the advantage of being usable on all types of calculi. A catheter is placed to drain the urinary system through the bladder and a nephrostomy tube is placed in the incision in the back to carry fluid from the kidney into a drainage bag. The catheter is removed after 24 hours. The nephrostomy tube is usually removed while the patient is still in the hospital but may be left in after the patient is discharged.
                                                      
Preparation:

Most hospitals require patients to have the following tests before a PCNL: a complete physical examination; complete blood count; an electrocardiogram  (ECG); a comprehensive set of metabolic tests; a urine test; and tests that measure the speed of blood clotting. Aspirin and arthritis medications should be discontinued seven to 10 days before a PCNL because they thin the blood and affect clotting time. Some surgeons ask patients to take a laxative the day before surgery to minimize the risk of constipation during the first few days of recovery. The patient is asked to drink only clear fluids (fruit juices, or water) for 24 hours prior to surgery, with nothing by mouth after midnight before the procedure.
          
Aftercare:

A standard PCNL usually requires hospitalization for five to six days after the procedure. The urologist may order additional imaging studies to determine whether any fragments of stones are still present. These can be removed with a nephroscope if necessary. The nephrostomy tube is then removed and the incision covered with a bandage.  The patient will be given instructions for changing the bandage at home. The patient is given fluids intravenously  for one to two days after surgery. Later, he or she is encouraged to drink large quantities of fluid in order to produce about 2 qt (1.2 l) of urine per day. Some blood in the urine is normal for several days after PCNL. Blood and urine samples may be taken for laboratory analysis of specific risk factors for calculus formation.